Target Discovery, Inc. and its scientists have published extensively in the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

A selection of our publications illustrating our expertise in analytical chemistry (including mass spectrometry), data analysis, theoretical chemistry, proteomics, clinical research and biomarker development can be found here:

Muthu M, Chun S, Wu HF, Duncan MW, Gopal J. The ongoing evolution of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: Some observations on current trends and future directions. Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2018, 53 (6): 525-540.

Vacano GN, Gibson DS, Turjoman AA, Gawryluk JW, Geiger JD, Duncan M, Patterson D... Proteomic analysis of six- and twelve-month hippocampus and cerebellum in a murine Down syndrome model. Neurobiology of Aging. 2018, 63: 96-109.

Hattan SJ, Parker KC, Vestal Ml, Yang JY, Herold DA, Duncan MW. Quantitation of Albumin and Creatinine in Urine by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Current Trends In Mass Spectrometry. 2016 (October Supplement)

Hattan SJ, Parker KC, Vestal Ml, Yang JY, Herold DA, Duncan MW. Analysis and Quantitation of Glycated Hemoglobin by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. Journal Of American Society Mass Spectrometry. 2016, 27 (3): 532-41.

Duncan, MW, Nedelkov D, Walsh R, Hattan SJ. Applications of MALDI Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Chemistry. Clinical Chemistry. 2016, 62 (1): 134-43.

Blondeau N, Lipsky R, Bourourou M, Duncan M, Gorelick P, Marini A. α-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid with neuroprotective properties: Ready for use in the stroke clinic? Biomedical Research International. (2015) 2015, Article ID 519830, 8 pages.

Benabdelkamel H, Masood A, Almidani GM, Alsadhan AA, Bassas AF, Duncan MW, Alfadda AA. Mature adipocyte proteome reveals differentially altered protein abundances between lean, overweight and morbidly obese human subjects. Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology. 2015, 401:142-54. PMID: 25498962.

Muenchhoff J, Poljak A, Song F, Raftery M, Brodaty H, Duncan M, McEvoy M, Attia J, Schofield PW, Sachdev PS. Plasma Protein Profiling of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Across Two Independent Cohorts. Journal Of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2015, 43(4):1355-1373.

Duncan MW, Yergey AL, Gale PJ. Quantifying Proteins by Mass Spectrometry. Spectroscopy. 2015, 30 (1): 42-58.

Gale PJ, Yergey AL, Duncan MW, Yu K. Quantifying Small Molecules by Mass Spectrometry. LC GC NORTH AMERICA, 2014, 33 (1): 34-41.

Al-Fadda AA, Turjoman AA, Moustafa AS, Al-Naami MY, Chishti MA, Sallam RM, Newell K, Gibson DS, Duncan MW. Excreted and Circulating Protein Changes Following Weight Loss by Either Bariatric Surgery or Calorie Restriction. Journal Of Experimental Biology & Medicine. 2014, 239 (5): 568-580.

Ha Y, Tenderholt AL, Holm RH, Hedman B, Hodgson KO, Solomon EI. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations on monooxo Mo(IV) and bisoxo Mo(VI) bis-dithiolenes: insights into the mechanism of oxo transfer in sulfite oxidase and its relation to the mechanism of DMSO reductase. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014, 136 (25): 9094-105. doi: 10.1021/ja503316p.

Tsikas D & Duncan MW. Mass Spectrometry & 3-Nitrotyrosine: Strategies, Controversies and Our Current Perspective. Mass Spectrometry Reviews, 2013, 48 (7): 779-94.

Al-Fadda AA, Benabdelkamel H, Masood A, Moustafa A, Sallam R, Bassas A, Duncan MW. A Proteomic Analysis of Mature Adipocytes from Obese Patients in relation to Aging. Journal Of Experimental Gerontology. 2013, 48 (11): 1196-203.

Abdulqader Alhaider, Abdel Galil Abdelgader, Abdullah Arif Turjoman, Keri Newell, Stephen W. Hunsucker, Baozhen Shan, Bin Ma, David S. Gibson and Mark W. Duncan. Through the Eye of an Electrospray Needle: Mass Spectrometric Identification of the Major Peptides & Proteins in the Milk of the One Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal Of Mass Spectrometry. 2013, 47 (6): 795-809.

Duncan MW, Wagner BD, Murray K, Allen J, Colvin K, Accurso FJ, Ivy DD. Circulating Cytokines and Growth Factors in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension. Mediators Of Inflammation, 2012, Article ID 143428, 2012.

Gibson DS, Newell K, Evans AN, Finnegan S, Manning G, Scaife C, McAllister C, Pennington SR, Duncan MW, Moore TL, Rooney ME. Vitamin D Binding Protein Isoforms as Candidate Predictors of Disease Extension in Childhood Arthritis. Journal Of Proteomics. 2012, 75 (17): 5479- 92.

Duncan MW. Good Mass Spectrometry and its Place in Good Science. Journal Of Mass Spectrometry. 2012, 47 (6): 795-809. PMID: 22707172.

Zajdowicz S, Haller JC, Amy E. Krafft AE, Hunsucker SW, Mant CT, Duncan MW, Hodges RW, Jones D, Holmes RK. Purification and Structural Characterization of Siderophore (Corynebactin) from Corynebacterium diphtheria. PLoS One, 2012, 7(4): e34591. PMID: 22514641.

Schneider LV, Likhte V, Wright WH, Chu F, Cambron E, Baldwin-Burnett A, Krakow J, Smejkal GB. Method for recovery and immunoaffinity enrichment of membrane proteins illustrated with metastatic ovarian cancer tissues. International Journal of Proteomics. 2012:838630. doi: 10.1155/2012/838630.

Schrauben JN, Cattaneo M, Day TC, Tenderholt AL, Mayer JM. Multiple-site concerted proton-electron transfer reactions of hydrogen-bonded phenols are nonadiabatic and well described by semiclassical Marcus theory. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2012, 134 (40): 16635-45. doi: 10.1021/ja305668h.

Markle TF, Tenderholt AL, Mayer JM. Probing quantum and dynamic effects in concerted proton-electron transfer reactions of phenol-base compounds. Journal Of Physical Chemistry B. 2012, 116 (1), 571–584.

Kulis M, Chen X, Lew J, Wang Q, Patel O, Zhuang Y, Murray K, Duncan M, Porterfield H, Burks A, Dreskin S. The 2S Albumin Allergens of Arachis hypogaea, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, are the Major Elicitors of Anaphylaxis and can Effectively Desensitize Peanut-allergic Mice. Clinical And Experimental Allergy. 2012, 42(2), 326-36. PMID: 22288514.

Gibson DS, Rooney ME, Finnegan S, Qiu J, Thompson DC, LaBaer J, Pennington SR, Duncan MW. Biomarkers in Rheumatology, Now and in the Future. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011, 51 (3), 423-33. (Epub ahead of print.) PMID: 22179724.

Duncan MW, Aebersold R, Caprioli RM. The Pros and Cons of Peptide-Centric Proteomics. Nature Biotechnology. 2010, 28 (7): 659-64. PMID: 20622832.

Ndao M, Spithill TW, Caffrey R, Li H, Podust VN, Perichon R, Santamaria C, Ache A, Duncan M, Powell MR, Ward BJ. Identification of Novel Diagnostic Serum Biomarkers for Chagas Disease in Asymptomatic Subjects by Mass Spectrometric Profiling. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2010, 48 (4): 1139-49. PMID: 20071547.

O’Boyle NM, Guha R, Willighagen EL, Adams SE, Alvarsson J, Bradley JC, Filippov IV, Hanson RM, Hanwell MD, Hutchison GR, James CA, Jeliazkova N, Lang AS, Langner KM, Lonie DC, Lowe DM, Pansanel J, Pavlov D, Spjuth O, Steinbeck C, Tenderholt AL, Theisen KJ, Murray-Rust P. Open Data, Open Source and Open Standards in chemistry: The Blue Obelisk five years on. Journal of Cheminformatics. 2011, 3 (1): 37. doi: 10.1186/1758-2946-3-37.

Weitzel LR, Byers T, Allen J, Finlayson C, Helmke SM, Hokanson JE, Hunsucker SW, Murphy JR, Newell K, Queensland KM, Singh M, Wischmeyer PE, Duncan MW, Elias A. Discovery and Verification of Protein Differences Between Er positive/Her2/neu negative breast tumor tissue and matched adjacent normal breast tissue. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment. 2010, 124 (2): 297- 305. PMID: 20087651.

Porterfield HS, Murray KS, Schlichting DG, Chen X, Hansen KC, Duncan MW, Dreskin SC, Effector activity of peanut allergens: a critical role for Ara h 2, Ara h 6, and their variants. Clinical & Experimental Allergy. 2009, 39 (7): 1099–1108. PMID: 19438581.

Duncan MW. Place for Biochemical Markers in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Detection? Journal Of Clinical Oncology. 2009, 27 (17): 2749-2750. PMID: 19414662.

Duncan MW, Yergey AL, Patterson SD. Quantifying Proteins by Mass Spectrometry: the Selectivity of SRM is only Part of the Problem. Proteomics. 2009, 9 (5): 1124-1127. PMID: 19253279.

Duncan MW, Roder, H, Hunsucker SW. Quantitative Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Briefings In Functional Genomics And Proteomics. 2008, 7 (5): 355-370. PMID: 19106161.

O’Boyle NM, Tenderholt AL, Langner KM. cclib: A Library for Package-Independent Computational Chemistry Algorithms. Journal of Computational Chemistry. 2008, 29 (5): 839-845.

Netea-Maier RT, Hunsucker SW, Hoevenaars BM, Helmke SM, Slootweg PJ, Hermus AR, Haugen BR, Duncan MW. Discovery and validation of protein abundance differences between follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Research 2008, 68 (5): 1572-1580. PMID: 18316623.

Hunsucker SW, Solomon B, Gawryluk J, Geiger JD, Vacano GN, Duncan MW, Patterson D. (2007). Assessment of post-mortem-induced changes to the mouse brain proteome. Journal Of Neurochemistry 2007, 105 (3): 725-737. PMID:18088372.

Hunsucker SW, Accurso FJ, Duncan MW. Proteomics in Pediatric Research and Practice. Advances In Pediatrics, 2007, 54: 9-28.

Helmke SM, Duncan MW. Measurement of the NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, in human biological fluids by GC-MS. Journal Of Chromatography B – Analytical Technologies In The Biomedical And Life Sciences. 2007, 851 (1-2): 83-92.

Duncan MW, Thompson HS. Proteomics of semen and its constituents. Proteomics Clinical Applications. 2007, 1 (8): 861-875.

Taguchi F, Solomon B, Gregorc V, Roder H, Gray R, Kasahara K, Nishio M, Brahmer J, Spreafico A, Ludovini V, Massion P, Dziadziuszko R, Schiller J, Grigorieva J, Tsypin M, Hunsucker S, Caprioli R, Duncan MW, Hirsch F, Bunn Jr. P, Carbone D. Mass spectrometry to classify non–small-cell lung cancer patients for clinical outcome after treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a multicohort cross-institutional study. Journal Of The National Cancer Institute. 2007, 99 (11): 838-846. PMID: 17551144.

Kumar G, Smith QR, Hokari M, Parepally J, Duncan MW. Brain uptake, pharmacokinetics, and tissue distribution in the rat of neurotoxic N-butylbenzenesulfonamide. Toxicological Sciences. 2007, 98 (2): 607-609. PMID: 17369196.

Helmke SM, Duncan MW. Measurement of the NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, in human biological fluids by GC-MS. Journal Of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies In The Biomedical And Life Sciences. 2007, 851 (1-2): 83-92. PMID: 17070739.

McDermott RA, Porterfield HS, El Mezayen R, Burks AW, Pons L, Schlichting DG, Solomon B, Redzic JS, Harbeck RJ, Duncan MW, Hansen KC, Dreskin SC. Contribution of Ara h 2 to peanut-specific, immunoglobulin E-mediated, cell activation. Clinical And Experimental Allergy. 2007, 37 (5): 752-763 PMID: 17456223.

Hunsucker, SW; Duncan, MW. Is protein overlap in two-dimensional gels a serious practical problem? Proteomics. 2006, 6 (5): 1374-1375.

Brown LM, Helmke SM, Hunsucker SW, Netea-Maier RT, Chiang SA, Heinz DE, Shroyer KR, Duncan MW, Haugen BR. Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in Protein Expression Between Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Normal Thyroid Tissue. Molecular Carcinogenesis. 2006, 45 (8): 613-626. PMID: 16788983.

Duncan MW, Hunsucker SW. Comments on standards in proteomics and the concept of fitness-for-purpose. Proteomics, Supplement: S. 2006, 45-47.

Yen CY, Helmke SM, Cios KJ, Perryman MB, Duncan MW. Quantitative analysis of proteomics using data mining. An automated system for constructing assays quickly and precisely. IEEE Engineering In Medicine And Biology Magazine. 2005, 24 (3): 67-72. PMID: 15971843.

Blake CA, Brown LM, Duncan MW, Hunsucker SW, Helmke SM. Estrogen Regulation of the Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland Proteome. Experimental Biology And Medicine. 2005, 230 (11): 800 – 807. PMID: 16339744.

Chang WW, Hobson C, Bomberger DC, Schneider LV. Rapid separation of protein isoforms by capillary zone electrophoresis with new dynamic coatings. Electrophoresis. 2005, 26 (11): 2179-86.

Duncan MW, Hunsucker SW. Proteomics as a Tool for Clinically Relevant Biomarker Discovery and Validation. Experimental Biology And Medicine. 2005, 230 (11): 808-817. PMID: 16339745.

Hall MP, Schneider LV. Isotope-differentiated binding energy shift tags (IDBEST) for improved targeted biomarker discovery and validation. Expert Reviews in Proteomics. 2004,1 (4): 421-31.

Helmke SM, Yen C-Y, Cios KJ, Nunley K, Bristow MR, Duncan MW, Perryman MB. Simultaneous quantification of human cardiac a- and b-myosin heavy chain proteins by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 2004, 76 (6): 1683-1689. PMID: 15018568.

Hammack BN, Fung KYC, Hunsucker SW, Duncan MW, Burgoon MP, Owens GP, Gilden DH. Proteomic analysis of multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid. Multiple Sclerosis, 2004, 10 (3): 245- 260. PMID: 15222687.

Bowler RP, Duda B, Chan ED, Enghild JJ, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Duncan MW. A Proteomic Analysis of Pulmonary Edema Fluid & Plasma in Patients With Acute Lung Injury. American Journal Of Physiology: Lung Cellular And Molecular Physiology, 2004, 286 (6): L1095-L1104. PMID: 14742308.

Fung KYC, Glode LM, Green S, Duncan MW. A comprehensive characterization of the peptide and protein constituents of human seminal fluid. Prostate, 2004, 61 (2): 171-181. PMID: 15305340.

Fung KYC, Morris C, Sathe S, Sack R, Duncan MW. Characterization of the in vivo forms of lacrimal specific proline-rich proteins in human tear fluid. Proteomics, 2004, 4 (12): 3953-3959. PMID: 15526346.

Fung KYC, Askovic S, Basile F, Duncan MW. A simple and inexpensive approach to interfacing HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Proteomics, 2004, 4 (10): 3121-3127. PMID: 15378700.

Whitsett JA, Bachurski CJ, Barnes KC, Bunn PA, Case LM, Cook DN, Crooks D, Duncan MW, Dwyer-Nield L, Elston RC, Fessler MB, Franklin WA, Friedman N, Garcia JGN, Geraci MW, Glasgow C, Glasser SW, Hardie WD, Henning LM, Johnson GL, Kawkitinarong K, Keith RL, Thomas R Korfhagen, George D Leikauf, Stephen B Liggett, Kenneth C Malcolm, Alvin M Malkinson A, Mariani TJ, McDowell SA, McGraw DW, Medvedovic M, Moss J, Nogee LM, Nonas S, Pacheco-Rodriguez G, Palmer LJ, Peters DG, Prows DR, Redline S, Regev A, Sartor MA, Schwartz DA, Silverman EK, Steagall WK, Stearman RS, Taveira-DaSilva A, Tichelaar JW, Tomlinson CR, Tsukada K, Weaver TE, Wert SE, Wesselkamper SC, Worthen GS, Yan X, Zerbe L, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Choi AMK, Kaminski N. Functional genomics of lung disease. American Journal Of Respiratory Cell & Molecular Biology, 2004, 31 (2): S1-S81.

Peebles K, Duncan MW, Ruch RJ, Malkinson A. Proteomic analysis of a neoplastic mouse lung epithelial cell line whose tumorigenicity is abrogated by transfection with the gap junction structural gene for connexin 43, Gja1. Carcinogenesis, 2003, 24 (4): 651-657. PMID: 12727792.

Gustafson DL, Long ME, Zirrolli JA, Duncan MW, Holden SN, Pierson AS, Eckhardt SG. Analysis of docetaxel pharmacokinetics in humans with the inclusion of later sampling time- points afforded by the use of a sensitive tandem LCMS assay. Cancer Chemotherapy And Pharmacology, 2003, 52 (2): 159-166. PMID: 12759775.

Poljak A, Dawes IW, Ingelse BA, Duncan MW, Smythe GA, Grant CM. Oxidative damage to proteins in yeast cells exposed to adaptive levels of H2O2. Redox Report, 2003, 8 (6): 371-377. PMID: 14980070.

Nicolls MR, D’Antonio JM, Hutton JC, Gill RG, Czwornog JL, Duncan MW. Proteomics as a tool for discovery: proteins implicated in Alzheimer’s disease are highly expressed in normal pancreatic islets. Journal Of Proteome Research, 2003, 2 (2): 199-205. PMID: 12716134.

Duncan MW. A review of approaches to the analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine. Amino Acids, 2003, 25 (3-4): 351-361.

Naranda T, Kaufman RI, Li J, Wong K, Boge A, Hallen D, Fung KYC, Duncan MW, Andersen N, Goldstein A, Olsson L. Activation of erythropoietin receptor through a novel extracellular binding site. Endocrinology, 2002, 143 (6): 2293-2302. PMID: 12021194.

Fung K, Morris C, Duncan M, Mass spectrometric techniques applied to the analysis of human tears: A focus on the peptide and protein constituents. in: Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, And Dry Eye Syndromes 3: Basic Science And Clinical Relevance, Pts A & B; Book Series: Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology. 2002, 506: 601-605.

Fessler MB, Malcolm KC, Duncan MW, Worthen GS. A genomic and proteomic analysis of activation of the human neutrophil by lipopolysaccharide and its mediation by p38 mitogen- activated protein kinase. Journal Of Biological Chemistry, 2002, 277 (35): 31291-31302. PMID: 11943771.

Bucknall M, Fung KYC, Duncan MW. Practical quantitative applications of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Journal Of The American Society For Mass Spectrometry, 2002,13 (9): 1015- 1027. PMID: 12322949.

Fung KYC, Morris C, Duncan MW. Mass spectrometric techniques applied to the analysis of human tears: a focus on the peptide and protein constituents. Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology, 2002, 506 (Pt A): 601-605.

Dehn DL, Claffey D, Duncan MW, Ruth JA. Nicotine and cotinine adducts of a melanin intermediate demonstrated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). Chemical Research In Toxicology, 2001, 14 (3): 275-279. PMID: 11258976.

Winski S, Faig M, Bianchet MA, Siegel D, Swann E, Fung KYC, Duncan MW, Moody CJ, Amzel M, Ross D. Characterization of a mechanism-based inhibitor of NAD(P)H: quinone NQO1 (DT-diaphorase) by biochemical, X ray crystallographic and mass spectrometric approaches. Biochemistry, 2001, 40 (50): 15135-15142. PMID: 11735396.

Zoellner H, Hou JY, Hochgrebe T, Poljak A, Duncan MW, Golding J, Henderson T, Lynch G. Fluorometric and mass spectrometric analysis of nonenzymatic glycosylated albumin. Biochemical And Biophysical Research Communications, 2001, 284 (1): 83-89. PMID: 11374874.

Davies SM, Poljak A, Duncan MW, Smythe GA, Murphy MP. Measurements of protein carbonyls, ortho- and meta-tyrosine and oxidative phosphorylation complex activity in mitochondria from young and old rats. Free Radical Biology And Medicine, 2001, 31 (4): 559-559. (Erratum: 31 (4): 559.) PMID: 11440830.

Wolthers T, Hoffman DM, Nugent AG, Duncan MW, Umpleby M, Ho KK. Oral estrogen antagonizes the metabolic actions of growth hormone in growth hormone-deficient women. American Journal Of Physiology: Endocrinology And Metabolism, 2001, 281 (6): E1191-1196. PMID: 11701433.

Poljak A, Pamphlett R, Gurney ME, Duncan MW. Measurement of o– and m-tyrosine as markers of oxidative damage in motor neuron disease. Redox Report, 2001, 5 (2-3): 137-140. PMID: 10939295.

Yi D, Ingelse BA, Duncan MW, Smythe GA. Quantification of 3-nitrotyrosine in biological tissues and fluids: Generating valid results by eliminating artifactual formation. Journal Of The American Society For Mass Spectrometry, 2000, 11 (6): 578-586. PMID: 10833032.